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Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Francisco Bouligny by Gilbert C. The eventful history of Louisiana during the colonial period has left a legacy that endures to the present day in the culture, politics, and population patterns of the state. Yet Louisiana's colonial history has been too little studied, and few biographies exist to illuminate the personalities and activities of individuals who lived during that time. In Francisco Bouligny: The eventful history of Louisiana during the colonial period has left a legacy that endures to the present day in the culture, politics, and population patterns of the state.
Din presents a detailed, well-rounded examination of one of Spanish Louisiana's first citizens. Din draws a lively and informative portrait of an ambition-driven soldier and government official who hoped to find in the colonial arena opportunities for professional, social, and economic advancement.
Bouligny, the scion of a provincial Iberian family, arrived in Louisiana in as a member of Alejandro O'Reilly's expedition to the colony, and he remained there until his death in - virtually the entire duration of Spanish domination of the region. At the same time Bouligny was named lieutenant governor and was put in charge of settlements, commerce, and Indians.
Bouligny founded the settlement of New Iberia, served with distinction in the Spanish campaigns along the Gulf Coast during the American Revolution, and after the war helped crush the murderous San Malo gang of runaway slaves and dealt successfully with a threatened attempt to claim West Florida as United States territory. Despite his accomplishments, Bouligny never achieved all the successes he desired - at least partially, Din asserts, because of the unwillingness of Bernardo deGalvez to promote Bouligny's interests.
Din's study is much more than the story of one individual.
It provides valuable information about Spain's takeover of Louisiana from the French, the administration of the colony, Louisiana's involvement in the American Revolution, and the final Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Original Title. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Francisco Bouligny , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 0. Rating details.
The maroon leader Mackandal led a movement to poison the drinking water of the plantation owners in the s. Boukman declared war on the French plantation owners in , sparking off the Haitian Revolution. Additional slaves gained freedom during the confusion surrounding the English Invasion of Jamaica. Refugee slaves continued to join them through the decades until the abolition of slavery in During the late 17th and 18th centuries, the British tried to capture them because they occasionally raided plantations , and made expansion into the interior more difficult.
Bibliography: Slave Trade and Slavery – New Orleans Research Collaborative
An increase in armed confrontations over decades led to the First Maroon War in the s, but the British were unable to defeat the Maroons. They finally settled with the groups by treaty in and , allowing them to have autonomy in their communities in exchange for agreeing to be called to military service with the colonists if needed.
After the governor tricked the Trelawny Maroons into surrendering, the colonial government deported approximately captive maroons to Nova Scotia. It offered ethnic Africans a chance to set up their own community there, beginning in Around a number of Jamaican Maroons were transported to Freetown , the first settlement of Sierra Leone.
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The only Leeward Maroon settlement that retained formal autonomy on Jamaica after the Second Maroon War was Accompong , in Saint Elizabeth Parish , whose people had abided by their treaty with the British. The government has tried to encourage survival of the other Maroon settlements. Since , the Jamaican government and Maroon communities have held the Annual International Maroon Conference at rotating communities around the island.
Maroons from other Caribbean, Central and South America nations are invited. DNA analysis of contemporary persons from this area shows maternal ancestry from the Mandinka , Wolof , and Fulani peoples through the mtDNA African haplotype associated with them, L1b , which is present here.
Several different maroon societies developed around the Gulf of Honduras. Some were found in the interior of modern-day Honduras , along the trade routes by which silver mined in the Pacific side of the isthmus was carried by slaves down to coastal towns such as Trujillo or Puerto Caballos to be shipped to Europe. When slaves escaped, they went to the mountains for safety.
In the English bishop of Guatemala, Thomas Gage, reported active bands of maroons numbering in the hundreds along these routes. The Miskito Sambu were a maroon group who formed from slaves who revolted on a Portuguese ship around , wrecking the vessel on the coast of Honduras-Nicaragua and escaping into the interior. They intermarried with the indigenous people over the next half-century. They eventually rose to leadership of the Mosquito Coast , and led extensive slave raids against Spanish-held territories in the first half of the 18th century.
The Garifuna are descendants of maroon communities that developed on the island of Saint Vincent. They were deported to the coast of Honduras in From their original landing place in Roatan Island , the maroons moved to Trujillo. Gradually groups migrated south into the Mosquito Kingdom and north into Belize.
Bayano , a Mandinka man who had been enslaved and taken to Panama in , led a rebellion that year against the Spanish in Panama. He and his followers escaped to found villages in the lowlands. From to , maroons , who had been deported from Jamaica after the Second Maroon War, lived in Nova Scotia. In , they were sent to Sierra Leone. The Black Seminoles , who allied with Seminole Indians in Florida, were one of the largest and most successful Maroon communities in the United States. Some intermarried and were culturally Seminole; others maintained a more African culture.
Descendants of those who were removed with the Seminole to Indian Territory in the s are recognized as Seminole Freedmen. Many were formerly part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma , but have been excluded since the late 20th century by new membership rules that require proving Native American descent from historic documents.
Until the mids, maroon colonies lined the shores of Lake Borgne , just downriver of New Orleans , Louisiana. These fugitive slaves controlled many of the canals and back-country passages from Lake Pontchartrain to the Gulf , including the Rigolets. These colonies were finally eradicated by militia from Spanish-controlled New Orleans led by Francisco Bouligny. Free people of color aided in the capture of these fugitives. One of the best-known quilombos maroon settlements in Brazil was Palmares the Palm Nation which was founded in the early 17th century. At its height, it had a population of over 30, free people and was ruled by king Zumbi.
Palmares maintained its independent existence for almost a hundred years until it was conquered by the Portuguese in Escaped slaves established independent communities along the remote Pacific coast, outside of the reach of the colonial administration.
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In Colombia the Caribbean coast still sees maroon communities like San Basilio de Palenque , where the creole Palenquero language is spoken. In addition to escaped slaves, survivors from shipwrecks formed independent communities along rivers of the northern coast and mingled with indigenous communities in areas beyond the reach of the colonial administration.
Separate communities can be distinguished form the cantones Cojimies y Tababuela, Esmeraldas , Limones. By the s the Bushinengues in Suriname had begun to fight for their land rights. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Maroons people. For other uses, see Maroons disambiguation or Maroon disambiguation. African refugees who escaped from slavery in the Americas, and their descendants. See also: Afro-American religion. Main article: Jamaican Maroons. Main article: Cimarron people Panama. See also: Black Indians.
Main article: Black Seminoles. Main article: Great Dismal Swamp maroons.